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By Roger Crowley

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.

The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in historical past and the top of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and complete account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in heritage that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.

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1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West

A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the area we are living in today.

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It is clear from the table that potential trade is much larger than actual trade. The data reveal that Turkey's potential exports to the transitional economies in 1995 amounted to about 269 per cent more than actual exports and that imports from these countries could increase by 300 per cent. Projections for the year 2005 reveal that given normal circumstances Turkey's trade with these countries will increase considerably over the coming decades. 13. Accession to the EU is heavily dependent on the existence of democracy in the applicant country, the level of per capita income, the size of the population and the share of the agricultural sector.

Estimates for the relevant countries' per capita GNP, population and distance are plugged into the equation, which generates the import and export pattern for trade between the countries in question. 12 shows the potential value of exports and imports for trade between Turkey and the CEE and Baltic countries in 1995 and 2005. It is clear from the table that potential trade is much larger than actual trade. The data reveal that Turkey's potential exports to the transitional economies in 1995 amounted to about 269 per cent more than actual exports and that imports from these countries could increase by 300 per cent.

As nominal protection rates change domestic prices will change, leading to movement along the production possibility frontier of the economy. Among the sectors there will be winners and losers, and in order to identify these we determine the effective protection rates (EPR) for the years 1994 and 2001 and subtract from the value of the EPR for 2001 the value of the EPR for 1994. The results indicate that the customs union will lead to an increase in value added of the sectors grain mill products, sugar refining and clothing, and to a decrease in value added of the sectors processed tobacco, petroleum refining and non-alcoholic beverages.

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