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By Alton Meister

Evolution of Glutathione Metabolism (R. Fahey & A. Sundquist).

Covalent Inhibitors of the Gelation of Sickle cellphone Hemoglobin and Their results on functionality (J. Manning).

Structural foundation for Catalysis through Tryptophan Synthase (E. Miles).

constitution and Mechanism of F0F1-Type ATP Synthases and ATPases (H. Penefsky & R. Cross).

Novel elements of the Biochemistry of the Molybdenum Cofactor (K. Rajagopalan).

Ovothiols: organic and Chemical views (B. Shapiro & P. Hopkins).

N?5-(1-Carboxyethyl)Ornithine and similar [N-Carboxyalkyl]-Amino Acids: constitution, Biosynthesis, and serve as (J. Thompson & S. Miller).

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121. 122. ROBERT C. FAHEY AND ALPRED R. SUNDQUIST li, 1. , Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 350, 141-150 (1974). ma,A. and Tezcan, E. , Biochem. , 25, 81-91 (1981). Latta, K. and Augusteyn, R. , Exp. , 39, 343-354 (1984). Muhammed, S. and-Tezcan. E. , Doga. Seri C, 5, 115-118 (1981). Ng. C. and Shichi. , Exp. Eye Res.. 43,477-489 (1986). Ramos-Martinez, J. , Rodriguez BartolomC. , Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 758,689492 (1983). Ramos-Mertinez, J. I. and Rodriguez Toms, A. , Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, BOB, 355-360 (1985).

Eiol. , 250, 5475-5480 (1975). 107. Carlberg, I. , Eiochim. Biophys. Acra, 677, 146-152 (1981). 108. Lbpez-Barea, J. , Eur. J . , 98, 487-489 (1979). 109. , Arch. Eiochem. , 198, 241-246 (1979). 110. , Bhargava, K. , Anal. , 133, 94-99 (1983). 111. Carlberg. I. , Anal. , 116, 531-536 (1981). 46 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. ROBERT C. FAHEY AND ALPRED R. SUNDQUIST li, 1. , Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 350, 141-150 (1974). ma,A. and Tezcan, E. , Biochem. , 25, 81-91 (1981). Latta, K.

C. THE FIRST GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ENZYMES Once the synthesis of GSH had been achieved, other enzyme activities utilizing glutathione could have evolved. We consider first the scenario in which GSH synthesis appeared in phototrophic prokaryotes that were precursors to cyanobacteria and purple bacteria before accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. The first GSHdependent enzyme activity might then have been one that was essentially anaerobic, perhaps even a component of the photosynthetic process, but no such activity can be identified at present.

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