By Pierre Van Der Eng
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Extra info for Agricultural Growth in Indonesia: Productivity Change and Policy Impact since 1880
In Java pre-war expansion was largely due to non-rice food crops and estate crops, in particular sugar, and the 1960-88 per capita growth to compensate the 1937-60 setback was overwhelmingly rice-led. In the Other Islands the main factor explaining pre-war expansion was the production of farm cash crops, in particular rubber. Cash crop production remained important, but the main factor in the 1960-88 acceleration of growth was rice production. Labour productivity in Indonesian agriculture increased continuously since 1880 in Java and 1900 in the Other Islands, apart from the period 1937-60.
Sources: Appendices 1 and 2. 2 17 Barter terms of trade of cash-estate crops and food crops, 1880-1993 (1960=100) 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 -"— Five-Year Average Sources: Appendices 1 and 2. 3 Total and per capita gross value added in agriculture, 1880-1993 (1960=100) 30O 250 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Total Sources: Appendices 1 and 3. Per Capita Other Islands (1%) 18 Agricultural Growth in Indonesia In per capita terms there were a few major setbacks in pre-war agricultural growth in Java: in 1883-84, 1886-90 and 1920-21 due to harvest failures in rice production; and in 1932-35 due to the demise of sugar production.
Structure of male employment in Java, 1895-1925 (percentages) Officials, teachers, priests etc. 'Rich' farmersa 'Middle' farmers' 'Poor' farmers" Landless sharecroppers Labourers in farm agriculture0 Irregular wage labourers (coolies) Regular labourers on estates and factories Merchants, retailers, entrepreneurs and artisans 10. 6 Notes: 1895-1905 includes Europeans, Orientals and native Indonesians. 1895-1905 non-agricultural employment is calculated on the assumption that all part-timers were mainly employed in agriculture.