By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)
For your time now, i've got felt that the time is true to write down a e-book approximately machine Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess professional gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from 12 months to 12 months. throughout the overdue Nineteen Fifties the topic was once first delivered to the eye of the general public via an editorial in Scient(fic American, and not more than a decade later a chess software was once competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments during which the single individuals have been machine courses. and whilst the 1st global machine Championship was once held in Stockholm in 1974 the development was once a good luck. Laymen usually doubt the price of making an investment in a subject matter so esoteric as desktop chess, yet there's certainly huge gain to be received from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good through computing device, then the thoughts hired to examine and investigate destiny positions in those video games may also be helpful in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this e-book either attention-grabbing and instructive. those that comprehend whatever in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of desktops, might be capable of stick to my description of ways desktops play chess. people with an information of either components will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.
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Additional resources for All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers
The reader who wishes to verify this figure should remember that there are a How Computers Play Chess 39 maximum of 32 pieces to be arranged on the chessboard. with 64 squares to choose from, and that each of the eight white pawns is the same as every other white pawn, each white rook, white knight, and white bishop the same as the other, etc. Allowing for promotions the number is less than 2 x 10 50 • These figures are truly astronomic. But even if one considers a reasonable statistic, such as all games that last 40 moves, then assuming an average choice of 30 moves per position, the number of games is 10 120 which is far more than the number of atoms in the universe.
When a chess master looks ahead his whole analytical search rarely encompasses many more than 100 positions. His expertise is such that he can discard from his considerations almost all the legal moves at any depth of search. This is because his 'evaluation function' enables him to reject these moves as being highly implausible and to concentrate his efforts along paths that look more fruitful. So far (1975), chess programmers have made no real progress in this direction. Instead, chess programs typically look at tens or hundreds of thousands of positions at each move, some examine as many as one and a half million.
Instead, chess programs typically look at tens or hundreds of thousands of positions at each move, some examine as many as one and a half million. The device used by a chess program to look ahead from a chess position is called a tree. Trees are not peculiar to chess programs but are used in a variety of programs that solve decision making problems. Like the arborial variety computer trees have roots and branches but traditionally they grow downwards, rather than up towards the sky. Each chess position is represented on the tree by a 'node'.