By Benjamin Madley
among 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian inhabitants plunged from might be 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the 1st historian to discover the entire volume of the slaughter, the involvement of nation and federal officers, the taxpayer cash that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched e-book is a finished and chilling historical past of an American genocide.
Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide prior to explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence opposed to California Indians. He narrates the increase of a state-sanctioned killing desktop and the wide societal, judicial, and political help for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer kingdom militiamen, U.S. military infantrymen, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The nation and federal governments spent at the very least $1,700,000 on campaigns opposed to California Indians. in addition to comparing executive officers’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and the way different attainable genocides inside and past the Americas could be investigated utilizing the tools provided during this groundbreaking book.
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Extra info for An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873
29 32 California Indians before 1846 When Spanish authorities did punish colonists for sexually assaulting California Indians, the sentences were less severe than for similar crimes committed against non-Indians. In 1789, after one colonist raped an Indian woman, the authorities incarcerated him for only twenty days. In 1805, another colonist received a six-month sentence for raping an Indian girl, and, in 1818, a third received six months of hard labor for raping a married Indian women. 30 Unsurprisingly, thousands of California mission Indians resisted by fleeing; perhaps 4,000 left in 1817 alone.
Hardest hit were the indigenous peoples of the coastal zone between the San Diego area and the region north of San Francisco Bay. In 1769, perhaps 72,000 California Indians lived in this area. By 1830, their numbers had plunged. In total, if 310,000 Indians populated California in 1769, an estimated 245,000 California Indians were alive in 1830. 39 On a much smaller scale, Russians also colonized and coerced California Indians beginning in 1812 at Fort Ross Colony on the wave-lashed coast north of San Francisco.
28 Some sexual assaults were lethal, and at least one high-profile reported rape went unpunished. In 1773, Pedro Fages charged a trio of soldiers with raping three California Indian girls, one of whom subsequently died. Yet Governor Fages himself may have been guilty of raping a California Indian child. In 1785, his wife formally declared having caught him “physically on top of . . ” The girl was eleven years old. 29 32 California Indians before 1846 When Spanish authorities did punish colonists for sexually assaulting California Indians, the sentences were less severe than for similar crimes committed against non-Indians.