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By Joseph C. Doll, Beth L. Pruitt

Piezoresistor layout and purposes presents an summary of those MEMS units and comparable physics. The textual content demonstrates how MEMS permits miniaturization and integration of sensing in addition to effective packaging and sign conditioning. this article for engineers operating in MEMS layout describes the piezoresistive phenomenon and optimization in numerous purposes. comprises distinctive dialogue of such issues as; coupled types of mechanics, fabrics and digital habit in quite a few universal geometric implementations together with pressure gages, beam bending, and membrane loading. The textual content concludes with an up to date dialogue of the necessity for built-in MEMS layout and possibilities to leverage new fabrics, approaches and MEMS expertise.

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Piezoresistor Design and Applications

Piezoresistor layout and purposes presents an summary of those MEMS units and similar physics. The textual content demonstrates how MEMS permits miniaturization and integration of sensing in addition to effective packaging and sign conditioning. this article for engineers operating in MEMS layout describes the piezoresistive phenomenon and optimization in numerous functions.

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Ij = σji . Thus the stress tensor contains only six independent components. Strain, εij , is also directional. For an isotropic, homogeneous material, stress is related to strain by Hooke’s Law, σ = εE [195]. Although effective values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a single direction are often employed for simple loading situations, a tensor is required to fully describe the mechanics of an anisotropic material such as silicon [6, 63, 196]. The stress and strain are related by the elastic stiffness matrix, C, where σij = Cijkl εkl , or equivalently by the compliance matrix, S, where εij = Sijkl σkl .

16 a CMOS integrated piezoresistive cantilever array (two scanning cantilevers and one reference cantilever). b Micrograph of the overall sensor CMOS signal conditioning circuit. c Array of 12 cantilevers (the inner ten can be used for scanning while the outer two serve as a reference). The dimensions of the scanning cantilevers are 500 × 85 µm (Source Reprinted with permission from [260]. ©2004 National Academy of Sciences, USA) toward CMOS evolved with the availability of non-volatile memory (NVM).

A longitudinal tensile stress decreases the resistivity of n-type resistors and increases the resistivity of p-type resistors, while a transverse stress leads to the opposite effects. 17) where li , m i , and n i are the direction cosines between the crystallographic coordinate system and the direction of current flow and stress. The general form for computing the direction cosines is described in Ref. [197]. 18) where φ is the angle between the direction of current flow in the piezoresistor and the <100> direction.

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